Thursday, 21 March 2030


Sunday, 17 December 2017


Countable vs. Uncountable Nouns

A) Most nouns have singular and plural forms. They are countable nouns.
e.g. One letter, two letters
  • There is a letter on the table for you. (singular)
  • There are letters on the table for you. (plural)
B) Some nouns only have one form. They are uncountable nouns.
e.g. Money
  • There is no money in my bank account.
  • There is a lot of money in my bank account.

Many uncountable nouns refer to substances:
e.g. Chocolate, water, coffee, milk, sugar, salt, cheese, bread, rice, wood, glass, plastic, soap, toothpaste.
  • Do you have any chocolate?
  • The milk is sour - let's make cheese.
  • Rice is only edible when it has been cooked.

Many uncountable nouns refer to abstract ideas or emotions.
e.g. love, sadness, happiness, education, knowledge, and grammar.
  • Money can't buy love.
  • We like to experience happiness.
  • This education is priceless.

You can use a/an with singular countable nouns.
e.g. an umbrella, a wheel, a mistake.
  • It's raining so I need an umbrella.
  • I made a mistake.
  • This is a job for superman.

You can use plural countable nouns alone.
e.g. apples, bees, clouds.
  • There are clouds in the sky today.
  • There are bees making honey.
  • We eat apples for breakfast.

You can't use an article with an uncountable noun.
e.g. time, sand, electricity.
  • We need electricity to use our heater.
  • I lost track of time and we stayed up very late.
  • The beaches in Brazil have very nice sand.

It is very common in English to use some / any with plural nouns and uncountable nouns.
e.g. They don't listen to any advice.
  • We don't have any toys for the children.
  • There are many lessons in life, this is just one more.
  • It is important to have some knowledge of grammar.

   There are a range of nouns that are uncountable in English but are countable in other languages:
accommodation, advice, baggage, behaviour, bread, chaos, damage, furniture, information, luck, luggage, news, permission, progress, scenery, traffic, weather and work.

Countable vs. Uncountable Nouns

 To practice Countable and Uncountable nouns, TRY THIS GAME:


A and An

We use A/An (articles) with singular countable nouns.

  • My brother has a dog and my sister has a cat.
  • There is an accident on the corner.

A is used when the next word starts with a consonant sound.

  • A book
  • A guitar
  • A friend
  • A university (The start of the word university sounds like YOU, a consonant sound).

An is used when the next word starts with a vowel sound.

  • An apple
  • An ice-cream
  • An orange
  • An hour (the letter H in this word is silent so it sounds like it starts with a vowel).

Some and Any

We use SOME and ANY with plural nouns and uncountable nouns.

Some is generally used in positive sentences.

Any is generally used in negative sentences.

  • I have some information for you about flights to Paris.
    (Positive - Uncountable)
  • I don't have any information for you about flights to Paris.
    (Negative - Uncountable)

  • We met some friends for drinks after work yesterday.
    (Positive - Plural Countable)
  • I didn't see any friends there on Thursday.
    (Negative - Plural Countable)

  • I think he will have some time to speak to you today.
    (Positive - Uncountable)
  • I don't think he will have any time to speak to you today.
    (Negative - Uncountable)

You can also use SOME and ANY in a sentence without a noun if the meaning of the sentence is clear.
  • I didn't eat any salad but Peter ate some. (salad)
  • Sean took lots of photos of the mountains but Emma didn't take any. (photos)

Questions with Some and Any

Generally, we use ANY in questions.
  • Do you know any famous people?
  • Do you have any children?

  ButSOME is used in the following circumstances:

1. When we are offering something.
  • Would you like some coffee?
  • Do you want some sugar for your coffee?
2. When we are asking for something.
  • Could I have some salt, please?
  • Can I have some fries with that?
3. When we are suggesting something.
  • Why don't we watch some movies on TV tonight?
  • Why don't you give her some advice?

You can also use SOME and ANY in a sentence without a noun if the meaning of the sentence is clear.
I didn't eat any salad but Peter ate some. (salad)
Sean took lots of photos of the mountains but Emma didn't take any. (photos)


We use there is and there are to say that something exists.
Positive Sentences
We use there is for singular and there are for plural.
  • There is one table in the classroom.
  • There are three chairs in the classroom.
  • There is a spider in the bath.
  • There are many people at the bus stop.

We also use There is with uncountable nouns:
  • There is milk in the fridge.
  • There is some sugar on the table.
  • There is ice cream on your shirt.

The contraction of there is is there's.
  • There's a good song on the radio.
  • There's only one chocolate left in the box.
You cannot contract there are.
  • There are nine cats on the roof.
  • There are only five weeks until my birthday.

Negative Form
The negative is formed by putting not after is or are:
  • There is not a horse in the field.
  • There are not eight children in the school.
  • There is not a tree in the garden.
  • There are not two elephants in the zoo.
We almost always use contractions when speaking.
The Negative contractions are:
  • There's not = There isn't
  • There are not = There aren't

There aren't with Any

When we want to indicate that a zero quantity of something exists we use there aren't any.
  • There aren't any people at the party.
  • There aren't any trees in my street.
We also use this structure with uncountable nouns:
  • There isn't any water in the swimming pool.
  • There isn't any sugar in my coffee.


To form a question we place is / are in front of there.
Again we use any with plural questions or those which use uncountable nouns.
We also use there is / are in short answers.
  • Is there a dog in the supermarket? - No, there isn't.
  • Are there any dogs in the park? - Yes, there are.
  • Is there a security guard in the shop? - Yes, there is.
  • Are there any polar bears in Antarctica? - No, there aren't.
  • Is there any ice-cream in the freezer? - Yes, there is.

How Many with Are There

If we want to find out the number of objects that exist we use How many in the following form:
How many + plural noun + are there (+ complement).
  • How many dogs are there in the park?
  • How many students are there in your class?
  • How many countries are there in South America?
  • How many Star Wars films are there?

To practice There is/There areTRY THIS GAME:

Saturday, 9 December 2017


Shopping is an important part of our daily life's. When you enter a shop, store or supermarket a shop assistant might come to and ask you one of following questions:
  1. Can I help you?
  2. May I help you?
  3. Is there anything I can do for you?
  4. Hello sir/ madam how may I help you today?
  5. Can I help you find what you are looking for?
  6. Are you looking for anything in particular?
How to answer some of these questions :
  1. Yes please. I am trying to find some baby food.
  2. Yes. Can you tell me if you sell toothpaste?
  3. OK, please tell me where I can find shampoo?
Questions you might want to ask:
  1. Hello, can you help me?
  2. Is it OK to ask you something?

When  leaving the store, the shop / sales assistant or checkout worker might ask the following questions.
  1. Did you manage to find everything you wanted?
  2. Is that all?
  3. Is that everything?
  4. Do you need anything else, madam / sir?
  5. Will that be all?
Customer can use the following answers.
  1. Yes, that's it. Can I pay my bill now, please?
  2. Yes, that's all for today. Thank you.

Speaking tips: Remember to be polite. Use the words like 'please', 'thank-you' and 'excuse me'.
  1. You will use 'please' when you are asking somebody for something.
  2. You will use 'thank you' when you have received something.
  3. You will use 'excuse me' before you interrupt somebody.
Sometimes you will have to ask for help if you cannot find the product that you are looking for or asking for the various ways to pay for your goods.

Phrases that will be useful when shopping.
  1. Have you got? = Have you got any toothpaste?
  2. Do you have? = Do you have any first aids kits?
  3. Which aisle is the tooth paste in? (Aisle is the walk way between the shelves)
  4. Can I pay using my visa credit card? = Using your credit card or bank card to pay for your goods.
  5. Can I have a plastic bag to put my shopping in, please? = plastics bags used to carry your shopping in. Some supermarket’s you need to ask for plastic bags, most times you will not have to ask for them.

What is the high street?

The 'high street' is where most of the shops in towns and cities are located. British high streets now look more alike, with the same large chain stores in all major towns and cities, which sell clothes, shoes and electronic goods. There are still smaller family run stores, which specialise in certain goods and products.
  • Butcher’s shop (sells meat)
  • Baker’s or bakery (sells bread and cakes)
  • Greengrocer’s (sells fruit and vegetables, also known simply as the ‘grocer’s’)
  • Stationer's (sells paper, pencils, pens, printer cartridges and things for an office)
  • Chemist's or Drugstore (sells medicines and toiletries)
  • Hardware store (sells equipment and tools that you use in your home and yard: nails, screws also paint, glue,etc.)
  • Newsagent's (sells newspapers and magazines and also cigarrettes and sweets).
  • Off-license (sells only alcohol such as beer, wine and spirits. Many off-licenses also sell confectionary and cigarettes).

Shops you might want to know

Butcher’s                Baker’s/bakery               Newsagent’s
Chemist’s               Off-license                      Local corner shop
Clothes shop           Shoe shop                      Supermarket
Market                   Greengrocers                  Sports shop
Book shop              Sandwich shop

Supermarket: A large store that sells many different kinds of food and things people need for the house.
Corner shop: A small shop near your heme that opens very long hours and sells food and important things. 

What is a local corner shop?
Towns and cities across the UK often have a small local corner shop (convenience store) that normally stays open for very long hours, seven day a week, and stocks many essentials such as milk, bread, some basic foods and toiletries.
Stores that sell different types of goods:

Convenience store: A store where you can buy food, newspapers, etc., that is often open 24 hours each day. Also known as small local corner shop.
Department store: A large store that sells many different products, such as clothes, kitchen equipment, etc.
Chain store: One of a group of stores owned by the same company.
Superstore: A very big store, especially one that has many different types of products, or one that has a lot of one type of product.

Food stores

  • food store, supermarket, grocery store, convenience store, farmers' market, food market;
  • meat store (the butcher's), fish store, bakery (the baker's), dairy / dairy store;
  • fruit store, fruit and vegetables store (the greengrocery / the greengrocer's);
  • deli store / deli (delicatessen), confectionery, liquor store;
  • street vendor, ice cream vendor, fruit vendor; fruit stand, hot-dog stand, ice cream stand.
Stores that sell goods more cheaply:
Outlet store: A store that sells things for less than the usual price.
Warehouse store: A store that sells things in large amounts at lower prices.




  • bakery department / bakery section / baked goods;
  • meat section, fresh meat counter, frozen meat counter; fish section / fish; poultry section / poultry;
  • dairy section / dairy products; fruit and vegetables section / produce department / fruits and vegetables;
  • frozen food section / frozen foods; canned goods section / canned goods;
  • deli counter / deli section / deli; candy section / confectionery / confections / sweets / candy;
  • beverages section, soft drinks section; pet food section;
  • customer, shopper, salesperson, salesclerk; shopping cart, shopping basket;
  • department / section, aisle, shelf, counter, refrigerator, freezer, scale;
  • checkout counter, cashier, cash register, to pay, receipt, groceries; paper bag, brown bag, plastic bag.


  • Grain and grain products: wheat, rye, oats, corn (maize), barley, buckwheat, rice;baked goods / bakery goods, bread, rolls, buns, cakes, cookies, pies; cereal, corn flakes, oat flakes, wheat flakes, rice flakes, muesli, popcorn; pasta, macaroni, noodles, spaghetti, vermicelli, angel-hair pasta, ravioli, dumplings; flour, dough, batter, cake mix;
  • Baked goods: bread, white bread, whole wheat bread, rye bread, raisin bread, garlic bread, sourdough bread, French bread / French loaf, pita bread, tortilla;
  • Rolls, buns: roll, bread roll, sesame roll, poppy seed roll, cinnamon roll, hamburger bun, hot dog bun, crescent roll / croissant, bagel;
  • Thin crispy breads:cracker, biscuit, cookie, toast, breadstick, pretzel, hardtack / ship biscuit, wafer, waffle, crouton;
  • Cakes: cake, shortcake, fruitcake, strawberry shortcake, coffee cake, chocolate chip cake; blueberry muffin, raisin muffin, cupcake, brownie, oatmeal cookie, chocolate cookie, gingerbread;birthday cake, wedding cake, Christmas cake, chocolate cake, honey cake, cheesecake, layer cake, napoleon, sponge cake, torte;
  • Pastry: pastry, home-made pie, apple pie, blueberry pie, tart, mince pie, meat pie, knish, pizza, doughnut, English muffin, fritters, pancakes, waffles;
  • Meat, poultry, fish: Meat and meat products: meat, beef, pork, veal, lamb, mutton;
  • beef steak, roast beef, ground beef, hamburgers, cutlets, spare ribs, pork chops, lamb chops, veal cutlets;ham, bacon, pastrami, corned beef; sausage, salami, smoked sausage, Bologna; hot dogs, link sausages, frankfurters, wieners; Poultry: poultry, chicken, turkey, goose, duck; whole chicken, chicken quarters, chicken leg, drumstick, chicken breast, turkey breast; eggs;
  • Fish and fish products : fish, salmon, trout, sturgeon, cod, sole, flatfish, pike, halibut, tuna, perch, sea bass, herring, eel, mackerel; fish steak, salmon steak, fish fillet, fillet of sole; smoked fish, salted fish, marinated herring, caviar;
  • Seafood: seafood, shrimp, prawns, crab, lobster, oysters, clams, shellfish, squid;
  • Dairy products: Milk and milk products: milk, whole milk, skim milk, low-fat milk, nonfat milk, pasteurized milk, dry milk, condensed milk;
  • yogurt, kefir, sour milk, buttermilk; cream, sour cream, butter;
  • cottage cheese, farmers' cheese, home-made cheese, cream cheese; Cheese: cheese, Swiss cheese, Parmesan, Cheddar, Mozzarella, Roquefort, blue cheese; hard cheese, soft cheese, sharp cheese, mild cheese, smoked cheese, grated cheese, cheese spread;
  • Ice cream: ice cream, sundae, vanilla ice cream, chocolate ice cream, ice cream cone;
  • Fruit, berries, dried fruit, nuts: Fruit: fresh fruit, apple, pear, apricot, peach, nectarine, plum, grapes, cherry, sweet cherry; lemon, lime, orange, tangerine, grapefruit;
  • banana, kiwi, olive, pineapple, papaya, mango, avocado, coconut, persimmon, pomegranate; melon, watermelon; Berries: berries, strawberry, blueberry, cranberry, raspberry, black currants, red currants, gooseberry, blackberry, whortleberry; Dried fruit: dried fruit, dried apricots, raisins, figs, prunes, dates, candied fruit; Nuts and seeds: nuts, hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds, chestnuts, peanuts; pistachio nuts, cashew nuts, pecans, macadamia nuts; apricot pits, pumpkin seeds, sunflower seeds;
  • Preserves: raspberry jam, cranberry jam, grape jelly, honey, maple syrup, peanut butter;
  • Vegetables, beans, herbs: Vegetables: fresh vegetables, salad vegetables, canned vegetables, leaf vegetables / greens; tomato, cucumber, onion, garlic, carrot, beets, potato, sweet pepper, paprika, hot pepper, chili pepper, green onions / spring onions, leek, mushrooms;cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, collards, artichoke, lettuce, spinach, celery, asparagus, cress, watercress; eggplant, aubergine, squash, gourd, zucchini, pumpkin, turnip, radish, horse radish; pickled cucumbers / pickles, marinated cucumbers, sauerkraut, canned olives; Peas, beans, corn: green peas, sweet peas, string beans, lima beans, kidney beans, black beans, soybeans, corn, sweet corn;
  • Herbs: dill, parsley, basil, coriander, mint;
  • Fruit juice, beverages, drinks: apple juice, orange juice, grapefruit juice, lemon juice, tomato juice, fresh fruit juice, frozen fruit juice;
  • tea, green tea, black tea, tea with milk, iced tea, herbal tea, mint tea, Indian tea; coffee, instant coffee, espresso, cappuccino, decaffeinated coffee / decaf, coffee with milk, coffee with cream, half-and-half, black coffee; cocoa, hot chocolate, milkshake;
  • Water, soft drinks: mineral water, spring water, soft drinks, soda water, lemonade, cider, ginger ale;
  • Alcoholic drinks / liquor: beer, wine, red wine, white wine, champagne; vodka, cognac, brandy, whisky, liqueur; cocktail, punch;
  • Sauces, salad dressings, vegetable oils, fats: tomato sauce, ketchup, mushroom sauce, meat sauce, steak sauce, gravy, spaghetti sauce, hot sauce, chili sauce, barbecue sauce, sweet-and-sour sauce, soy sauce, garlic sauce, white sauce, dip sauce, apple sauce, cranberry sauce; salad dressing, Russian dressing, Italian dressing, French dressing, blue-cheese dressing, mayonnaise; vegetable oil, olive oil, corn oil, sunflower seed oil, sesame oil; margarine, grease, lard, animal fat, vegetable fat;
  • Seasoning and spices: seasoning, spices, flavoring, condiment, relish;
  • pepper, ground pepper, whole pepper, red pepper, hot pepper, chili pepper, salt, mustard, garlic; herbs, seeds, bay leaf, basil, cinnamon, cloves, coriander, dill, parsley, nutmeg, mint, caraway, thyme, cardamom, tarragon, lemon peel, oregano, marjoram, rosemary;
  • Sweets, candy, chocolate: candies, sweets, caramels, mint drops, jelly beans, lollipop, bonbons; chocolates, chocolate candies, chocolate, chocolate bar, candy bar;taffy / toffee, fudge, marshmallow.

  • A bag of: a bag of potatoes, a bag of oranges, a bag of dog food, a bag of potato chips;
  • A bar of: a bar of chocolate, a candy bar, a bar of soap;
  • A bottle of: a bottle of milk, a bottle of mineral water, a bottle of grapefruit juice, a bottle of red wine, two bottles of beer, a bottle of ketchup, a bottle of soy sauce;
  • A bowl of: a bowl of breakfast cereal, a bowl of cornflakes, a bowl of salad, a bowl of soup;
  • A box of: a box of spaghetti, a box of corn flakes, a box of crackers, a box of cookies, a box of chocolates, a box of matches;
  • A bunch of: a bunch of parsley, a bunch of carrots, a bunch of radishes, a bunch of flowers;
  • A can of: a can of green peas, a can of olives, a can of tomato soup, a can of sardines, a can of beer, a can of hair spray;
  • A carton of: a carton of milk, a carton of fruit juice, a carton of eggs, a carton of cigarettes (ten packs of cigarettes);
  • A container of: a container of sour cream, a container / a cup of yogurt;
  • A cup of: a cup of coffee, a cup of tea, a cup of soup, a (plastic) cup of coffee;
  • A dozen: a dozen eggs, two dozen eggs, a dozen oranges, a dozen bread rolls, a dozen hamburger buns;
  • A gallon of: a gallon of milk, a gallon of spring water;
  • A glass of: a glass of milk, a glass of beer, a glass of wine;
  • A head of: a head of cabbage, a head of cauliflower, two heads of garlic;
  • A jar of: a jar of coffee, a jar of mayonnaise, a jar of raspberry jam, a jar of pickles;
  • A loaf of: a loaf of bread, a loaf of French bread, two loaves of rye bread;
  • A mug of: a mug of beer, a mug of coffee;
  • A package of: a package of hot dogs, a package of chicken legs, a package of sesame rolls, a package of cookies, a package of cottage cheese, a package of popcorn, a package of beans, a package of candies;
  • A pack of: a pack of chewing gum, a pack of cigarettes, a pack of cards; a six-pack of beer, a twelve-pack of mineral water, a twin pack;
  • A piece of: a piece of bread, a piece of cake, a piece of pie, a piece of fruit;
  • A pint of: a pint of blueberries, a pint of cream, a pint of beer;
  • A pound of: a pound of meat, three pounds of ground beef, a pound of cheese, a half pound of butter, two pounds of tomatoes;
  • A quart of: a quart of milk, a quart of apple juice, two quarts of orange juice;
  • A roll of: a roll of toilet paper, a roll of paper towels, a roll of foil, a roll of film;
  • A slice of: a slice of bread, a slice of pie, a slice of pizza, a slice of cheese, a slice of meat; a slice of tomato;
  • A teaspoon of: a teaspoon of instant coffee, a teaspoon of syrup; a tablespoon of salt; Sugar: a lump of sugar; two lumps of sugar; a cube of sugar; a teaspoon of sugar; a spoonful of sugar;
  • A tube of: a tube of mustard, a tube of hand cream, a tube of shampoo, a tube of toothpaste;
  • One, two, five: two fish, four salmon steaks, five frozen hamburgers, three cinnamon buns, six oranges.


1 ounce (oz.) = 28.35 grams (g)
1 pound (lb.) = 16 ounces = 453.6 grams
2.2 pounds = 1 kilogram (kg)


1 pint (pt.) = 0.473 liters (L, l)
1 quart (qt.) = 2 pints = 0.946 liters

1 gallon (gal.) = 4 quarts = 3.785 liters

Inside a clothes shop.

General questions you can ask in a clothing store.
  1. Can you tell me where the dressing room is?
  2. I can't seem to find my size.
  3. Can you help me look for it please?
  4. Do you have this in different colours?
  5. Where is the black shirt you have on display in the shop window?
  6. How much is this jumper?
  7. Will you be having a sale soon?
  8. Where is the matching shirt for this skirt?
  9. When are you going to get more sizes?
  10. I'm looking for a belt that will go with these pants.
  11. Doe's the shop have alteration service?
  12. What will it cost be if I get the skirt altered?
  13. When will you  start selling your winter clothes collection?
  14. What day will you be getting your winter clothes collection?
How to answer some of the above questions.
  1. The dressing room is on left at the bottom of the store.
  2. The dressing room is over there next to the jeans.
  3. All our jumpers are located next to the t-shirts at the front of the store.
  4. We get new stock every Monday, so I if you want to try next week.
  5. Yes the store does have alterations ask at the information desk.
  6. Alterations, start from six pounds.
  7. Alterations normally takes one week, but can be quicker depending on our work load. If you leave the shirt today you will be able to pick them up next Friday.
  8. We'll have our winter collection on show late October.